• Copying material from a source text without proper acknowledgment.
  • Submitting another author’s work with or without that author’s knowledge / consent.
  • Copying material from a source text without proper acknowledgment.
  • Paraphrasing materials from a source text without appropriate citation / documentation.


“To plagiarize means to take someone else’s words and/or ideas (or pattern of ideas) and to present them to the reader as if they are yours. Plagiarism, then, is an act of stealing. It is also an uncaring, unwise act: and it is a dangerous act because one can be severely punished for it.


At any time, however, that you read anything in preparation for your article or consciously recall anything that you have read or heard, you must be prepared to provide documentation. Generally, when someone else’s ideas and/or words are used in an article, the author will either quote that person directly or author will paraphrase or summarize that person’s words. Author must let the reader know which he / she are doing.


  1. 1. If author quotes source directly, then
    1. put quotation marks before and after that person’s words;
    2. let the reader know the source by (1) putting a footnote number at the end of the quotation, or (2) putting at least the source’s name in parentheses after the quotation marks, or (3) Including a bibliography.


  1. 2. If you paraphrase (a paraphrase is about the same length as the original, but in different words) or if you summarize (a summary is a severely shortened version of the original), then
    1. introduce the source in some manner at the beginning of the passage being paraphrased (or summarized) so that the reader can tell where your idea stops and the other person’s begins;
    2. state the ideas taken from the source in author’s own words and author’s own arrangement. It is possible to plagiarize sentence patterns as well as exact words. A handy rule: if, in a paraphrase or summary, you use a stretch of more that three words in their exact order from a source, you should put those words into quotation marks;
    3. provide an exact source citation for those ideas paraphrased or summarized. This may be done either by footnote number at the end of the passages or by parenthetical references to the work and page(s) at the end of the article. This citation provides credit to the author being used and allows the reader access to the material for further study.


  1. 3. Author must also provide a footnote for any chart, graph, figure, table, summary, or other data taken directly from another source or any information derived from such materials.”



Plagiarism Statement from UTC Student Handbook:…/documents/syllabus-statements.doc



See the following website of the Society of Professional Journalists:



In order to understand plagiarism in detail, please see the website of Council of Writing Program Administrators (WPA) at:


Also see Society of Professional Journalists webpage on Plagiarism at:


How to Avoid Plagiarism? See Harvard Guide to Using Sources at: